War of Restoration

   After the revolution of 1 December 1640, when King João IV of Braganza overthrew Spanish rule and declared Portugal independent, Portugal and Spain fought a war that decided the fate of Portugal. The War of Restoration was fought between Spanish and Portuguese armies, assisted by foreign mercenaries and by Portugal's oldest ally, England. Portugal's 1640 Revolution and the war against Spain to maintain its reclaimed independence were supported as well by France during the 1610-59 period. After 1659, France gave no more assistance to Lisbon and cut off diplomatic relations. Portugal's great friend during this war, which was fought largely near the Luso-Spanish frontier or in Portugal in the flat Alentejo province, with no natural barriers to Spanish invasion, was thus England. This crucial alliance was reestablished in the Anglo-Portuguese treaties of 1642, 1654, and 1661. Various truce and peace treaties, too, were signed with Holland, which was willing to side with Portugal, or at least be neutral, against Spain. Catalonia's prolonged rebellion against Spanish (Castilian) rule during Portugal's struggle played an important role in weakening Spain's effort to recover Portugal. At Ameixial, on 8 June 1663, a decisive battle in the war occurred, resulting in the defeat of the Spanish army and its withdrawal from Portugal. The Luso-Spanish Peace Treaty (1668) concluded the War.
   See also Peace treaty of 1668.

Historical dictionary of Portugal 3rd ed.. . 2014.

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